120+ Biology Differentiate Between Questions (CBSE & ICSE)

Biology Differentiate Between Questions

Last Updated: 2 March 2024

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This article contains 120+ Biology Differentiate Between Questions that will be very helpful for students sitting for the biology exam.

Whether it be an online or an offline exam this article will provide you will a differentiation between questions from your syllabus for both ICSE and CBSE board students.

These important questions are collected based on previous year’s questions and various common questions asked in school examinations. Last but not least you can always comment below which differentiation you need that you didn’t find on the list.

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Biology Differentiate Between Questions

1Differentiate between Active Transport and Diffusion in plants?

No.Active TransportNo.Diffusion
1In plants, the minerals nutrients like nitrates, sulphates, potassium, etc are taken up by root hairs from the soil by Active Transport1Gaseous exchange during respiration and phot synthesis in plants occurs by a Diffusion Process
2Occurs against a concentration gradient2Occurs through a concentration gradient
3Allows the transportation of molecules like nutrients and wastes against the concentration gradient3Maintains a dynamic equilibrium of water, gases, nutrients, and wastes in and out of the cell
4It requires metabolic energy for the transportation of molecules across the cell membrane4It does not require metabolic energy to transport molecules across the cell membrane
5No equilibrium of molecules is established5No net movement of molecules is observed after the establishment of equilibrium on either side of the membrane

2Differentiate between Census and Survey?

1Census collects information about every member of the population1Survey collects information from a sample of the population
2Census is more detailed and accurate2A survey is not as accurate or reliable as a census
3Census takes a long time to complete3A survey can be done in a shorter period of time
4Census is generally conducted by the government4Surveys can be conducted by anyone
5Census is not conducted frequently5Surveys can be conducted more frequently

3Differentiate between Antibiotic and Antibody?

1Antibiotic is produced in nature by soil bacteria and fungi1Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B lymphocytes
2Antibiotics are either synthetic or produced from plants or other microorganisms2Antibodies are produced naturally by an immune system in the body
3Antibiotic attacks the cell wall and prevents the cellular functions of the bacteria3Antibodies bind with the antigen found on the pathogens and prevent infection
4Antibiotics are like medicines that kill other bad cells in the body4Antibodies are like cells that kills other bad cells in the body
5Example: Ampicillin, Penicillin5Example: IgA, IgG

4Differentiate between Renal Cortex and Renal Medulla?

No.Renal CortexNo.Renal Medulla
1The Renal Cortex refers to the part of the kidney that contains the Glomeruli and the Proximal and Distal convoluted tubules1The Renal Medulla refers to the inner-most part of the kidney which is mainly composed of collecting tubules
2Bowman’s Capsule, Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Distal Convoluted Tubule lies in the Renal Cortex2Loop of Henle which is the U-Shaped part of the nephron lies in Renal Medulla
3It is the outer layer of the kidney situated between the Renal Capsule and Renal Medullas3Inner-most layer of the kidney
4Pale brown or reddish color4Dark reddish-brown in color
5Renal cortex filters blood5The renal medulla regulates water and salts in the blood

5Differentiate between Atria and Ventricles?

1Atria refers to the two upper chambers of the heart1Ventricles refer to the two lower chambers of the heart
2Atria is smaller than ventricles2Ventricles are larger than atria
3It consists of a thin wall3It consists of a thick wall
4The main function is to collect blood and supply it to the ventricles in a controlled manner4The main function is to push blood throughout the body
5Receives blood passively as there are no valves between the corresponding veins and the atria5Receives blood with considerable blood pressure as they receive blood through the valve

6Differentiate between Pulmonary Artery and Pulmonary Vein?

No.Pulmonary ArteryNo.Pulmonary Vein
1Vessel from the pulmonary circulation loop, which carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs1Vessel from the pulmonary circulation loop, which carries oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart’s left atrium
2Carries dark-red deoxygenated blood2Carries bright-red oxygenated blood
3Carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs3Carries blood from lungs to the heart left atrium
4Divides into two branches, one for each lung4Divides into four branches, two for each lung
5It has a narrow lumen and high blood pressure5It has a wider lumen and lower blood pressure

7Differentiate between Auxins and Cytokinins?

1It is produced in the stem tip1It is produced in roots and travels upward in xylem sap
2Promotes cell elongation2Promotes cell division
3Play a major role in phototropism, geotropism, and hydrotropism3Moves from roots into shoots and thus signals lateral bud growth
4Auxin stimulates root branching4Cytokinin inhibits lateral root formation
5Maintains apical dominance5Does not maintain apical dominance

8Differentiate between Oxygenated Blood and Deoxygenated Blood?

No.Oxygenated BloodNo.Deoxygenated Blood
1Oxygenated blood refers to the blood that has been exposed to the oxygen in the lungs1Deoxygenated blood refers to the blood that has a low oxygen saturation relative to blood leaving the lungs
2Oxygen concentration is high2Oxygen concentration is low
3Flows from the lungs through the left chambers of the heart to the metabolizing tissues of the body3Flows from the metabolizing tissues of the body through the right chambers of the heart to the lungs
4Flows away from the heart4Flow towards the heart
5Driving force is the pumping pressure of the heart5Driving force if the muscular contractions
6Main function is to supply oxygen to the metabolizing tissues6Main function is to carry carbon dioxide to the lung

9Differentiate between RBC and WBC?

1These are minute disc-like structures, flat in the center, thick and round at the periphery1They are amoeboid shaped
2RBC’s do not have the nucleus2They are characterized by the presence of a large central nucleus
3RBCs are also called “Erythrocytes”3WBCs are also called “Leukocytes”
4Involved in transporting gases, mainly oxygen4Involved in defense mechanism
5The lifespan of RBCs is 120 days5The lifespan of WBCs is 5-21 days
6Low count of RBC leads to Anaemia6Low count of WBC leads to Leukopenia

10Differentiate between Hepatic Bile and Gallbladder Bile?

No.Hepatic BileNo.Gallbladder Bile
1Bile produced by the liver1Bile produced by the gallbladder
2Flows into the gallbladder for storage in the absence of food2Secreted into the small intestine in the presence of food
3Readily secreted form of bile from the liver3Stored form of bile in the gallbladder
4Alkaline4Slightly acidic
5Enters the common bile duct through the left and right hepatic ducts5Enters the common bile duct through the cystic duct

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11Differentiate between Inflammation and Swelling?

1Inflammation is the human body’s immune system response1Swelling occurs due to the accumulation of fluid into the tissue
2Symptoms include pain, redness, immobility, etc.2Symptoms include itching, vomiting, flatulence
3Inflammation could be dangerous especially when the causes are internal3Swelling is usually not dangerous
4Inflammation is not a component of swelling4Swelling can be a component of inflammation
5A part of the body is called inflamed if it is larger than usual because of an increase in the blood supply triggered by the body’s response to infection5A part of the body is called swollen if it is larger than its usual self

12Differentiate between Androgen and Estrogen?

1A male sex hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics1Any group of steroid hormones, promoting the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body
2Mainly occur in the male body2Mainly occur in the female body
3Main type: Testosterone3Main Type: Estradiol
4Other types: Dihydrotestosterone and Androstenedione4Other types: Estrone and Estriol
5Produced in testis5Produced in ovaries
6Responsible for the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system while developing secondary male sex characteristics6Responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system while developing secondary female sex characteristics

13Differentiate between Ureter and Urethra?

1Ureter carries urine from the kidney to the Urinary Bladder1Urethra carries urine from Urinary Bladder to the outside of the body
2Ureter refers to a duct through which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder2Urethra refers to a duct through which urine passes from the bladder to the outside of the body
3There are two ureters in the urinary system3There is only a single urethra in the urinary system
4Ureter is located in the middle part of the urinary system4Urethra is located in the last part of the urinary system
5A thin and long tube5A broad and short tube
6Considered as a part of only the urinary system6Considered as a part of both urinary and reproductive system

14Differentiate between Hypotonic Solution and Hypertonic Solution?

No.Hypotonic SolutionNo.Hypertonic Solution
1When a cell is placed in a Hypotonic Solution, it gets swollen up and the condition is called Turgidity1When a cell is placed in Hypertonic Solution, it shrinks and the condition is called Flaccidity
2Hypotonic solutions are solutions having lower osmotic pressures2Hypertonic solutions are solutions having comparatively higher osmotic pressures
3Have a low concentration3Have a high concentration
4Hypotonic environments cause cells to swell4Hypertonic environments cause cells to shrink
5It is not helpful in food preservation5It is helpful in food preservation

15Differentiate between Muscle Cell and Nerve Cells?

No.Muscle CellNo.Nerve Cells
1Muscle cells are the specialized cells found in the muscles that can shorten their length using a series of motor proteins present in the cell1Nerve cells are granular cells specialized in serving as the functional unit of the nervous system that transmits nerve impulses throughout the body
2They are also known as Myocytes2They are also known as Neurons
3It forms the muscular system3It forms the nervous system
4Cytoplasm is called sarcoplasm4Cytoplasm is called the neuroplasm
5Responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles5Responsible for the coordination of the functions of the body
6The 3 types of muscle cells are Smooth Muscles, Cardiac Muscles, & Skeletal Muscles6The 3 types of nerve cell are Neuron, Moto Neuron, & Mixed Neuron

16Differentiate between Vas Deferens and Fallopian Tube?

No.Vas DeferensNo.Fallopian Tube
1Vas Deferens is also known as Sperm Duct1Fallopian Tube is also known as Oviduct
2It receives the sperms from the epididymis and transports them along with secretions of Seminal vesicles, Prostate gland, and Cowper’s gland to the tip of the urethra2It receives the secondary Oocyte from the ovary and also acts as the site of fertilization of egg and sperm
3It belongs to the male reproductive system3It belongs to the female reproductive system
4Vas deferens is a muscular tube that transports sperms from the epididymis to the penis4The fallopian tube is a muscular tube that facilitates the movement of oocytes and allows fertilization
5No fertilization takes place5Fertilization takes place

17Differentiate between Red Cross and WHO?

No.Red CrossNo.WHO
1The main activities of the Red Cross include hospital services, blood bank, HIV/AIDS programs, maternity, child and family welfare, nursing, relief operations in fire, railway & other accidents, etc1The main activities of WHO is to reduce excess mortality, disability and promote a healthy lifestyle to reduce risk to human health and develop health systems that improve the health of the general public
2Red Cross is an autonomous organization2WHO is an agency of the United Nations
3It provides relief and medical assistance in times of war3It provides relief and medical assistance in times of epidemic and pandemic of diseases
4Red cross was founded in 16634WHO was founded in 1948
5Red cross was founded by 5 persons; Henry Dunant, Gustave Moynier Théodore Maunoir, Guillaume-Henri Dufour, & Louis Appia5WHO was founded by many countries coming together

18Differentiate between Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell?

No.Prokaryotic CellNo.Eukaryotic Cell
1Prokaryotic Cell has though cell wall1Eukaryotic Animal Cell is only surrounded by a thin plasma membrane
2It does not have a nucleus2It has a prominent nucleus in the center
3DNA is circular3DNA is a linear thread-like structure
4Smaller ribosomes4Larger ribosomes
5Cell division occurs by Binary Fission5Cell division occurs by Mitosis
6Example: Bacteria and Archaea6Example: Plants and Animals

19Differentiate between LUBB and DUBB?

1It is the first heart sound produced by the closure of the Bicuspid and Tricuspid Atrioventricular Valves1It is the second heart sound produced by the closure of Pulmonary and Aortic Semilunar Valves
2At the beginning of ventricular systole2At the beginning of ventricular diastole
3Low frequency3High frequency
4Low intensity4High intensity
5Low pitch5High pitch
6Low duration6High duration

20Differentiate between Animal Cell Mitosis and Plant Cell Mitosis?

No.Animal Cell MitosisNo.Plant Cell Mitosis
1It occurs in almost all types of cells of the organism1It occurs in the growing tips or meristems
2An animal cell becomes rounded before cell division2There is no change in the shape of plant cell before division
3Presence of Centrosome is essential3Centrosome is not present
4Asters are present4Asters are absent
5Cytokinesis occurs by cleavage wherein a furrow is formed dividing the mother cell into two daughter cells5Cytokinesis occurs commonly by the cell plate method wherein a solid middle lamella develops dividing the mother cell into two daughter cells

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21Differentiate between Diffusion and Osmosis?

1It is the movement of the molecules of a substance from a Higher Concentration towards the Lower Concentration1It is the movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a Less Concentrated Solution to a More Concentrated Solution
2Diffusion can operate in any medium2Osmosis operates only in liquid medium
3Diffusion applies to all types of substances- solids, liquids, or gases3It is applicable to only the solvent part of a solution
4It does not require any semipermeable membrane4A semipermeable membrane is a must for the operation of osmosis
5It involves the movement of solute molecules5It involves movement of solvent molecules
6Example: spreading of ink when a drop of it is put in a glass of water6Example: Shrinking of potato slice when kept in concentrated sucrose solution

22Differentiate between Human Blood and Animal Blood?

No.Human BloodNo.Animal Blood
1Human blood has an open circulatory system1Animal blood either have an open or closed circulatory system
2RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets are the cellular components2Animals with a closed circulatory system have Hemocytes
3Comprise ABO blood group and Rh blood group3Comprise different blood groups
4Hemoglobin is the respiratory pigment of humans and other vertebrates4Hemoglobin, Haemerythrin, Haemocyanin, & Chlorocruorin are the four respiratory pigments in invertebrates
5Red in color5Can be red, blue, green, and pink
6Have warmblood6Have either cold or warm

23Differentiate between Tubectomy and Vasectomy?

1Fallopian Tube is the part cut and tied in Tubectomy1Vasa Deferentia is the part cut and tied in Vasectomy
2It is a method of permanent contraception in females2It is a method of permanent contraception in males
3Naturally occurring vasectomy reversal where the tubes ligate back with each other can be easily detected3Naturally occurring tubectomy reversal can’t be detected till an occurrence of unintended pregnancy
4It is only done in males4It is only done in females
5Prevents sperms from entering into the urethra5Prevent the meeting o sperms with eggs in the uterus

24Differentiate between Vasopressin and Oxytocin?

1It is a vasoconstrictor1Stimulates contraction of uterine muscles during birth
2I tends to increase blood pressure2It causes the ejection of milk from the mammary gland
3It helps concentrate the urine3It has no such activity
4Its secretion is stimulated by the reduced quantity of body fluids4Its secretion is stimulated by distension of the uterus and suckling of the breast in females
5It helps to conserve water in the body5It causes contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth

25Differentiate between Rod Cells and Cone Cells?

No.Rod CellsNo.Cone Cells
1Cylindrically-shaped cells in the retina that respond to dim light1Cone-shaped, visual receptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to bright light and color
2It is distributed through the retina2mainly occur in the fovea
3Rod cells are responsible for monochromatic vision3Cone cells are responsible for colored vision
4It contains Rhodopsin4It contains Photopsin
5More sensitive and responsible for night vision5Have a poor sensitivity and require bright light for vision
6Contains approximately 90 million cells6Contains approximately 6 million cells
7More concentrated in the center of the retina7Evenly distributed all over the retina
8The shape of the nucleus is Ellipsoidal8The shape of the nucleus is Spherical
9High visual acuity9Low visual acuity
10Outer segment shape is Cylindrical10Outer segment shape is Conical

26Differentiate between Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves?

No.Cranial NervesNo.Spinal Nerves
1Cranial Nerves are the nerves that arise directly from the brain and pass through separate apertures in the skull1Spinal Nerves are a series of paired nerves that originate from the nerve roots of the spinal cord on both sides
2There are 12 pairs of Cranial Nerves2There are 31 pairs of Spinal Nerves
3Distributed in the head, neck, and facial regions3Distributed in the skin, sweat gland, mucosa, blood vessels, joints, & skeletal muscles
4Involved in vision, sense of smell, hearing, sense of taste, and eye movements4Involved in movement, sensation, and sweat secretion
5Form dorsal and ventral roots5Do not form dorsal and ventral roots

27Differentiate between Near Vision and Distant Vision?

No.Near VisionNo.Distant Vision
1The shape of the eye in Near Vision is more convex or rounded1The shape of the eye in Distant Vision is more Flattened
2Ciliary muscle contracts2Ciliary muscle relaxes
3Suspensory ligament slackens3Suspensory ligament stretches
4The lens is allowed to thicken4The lens is pulled thin
5Light from a near object is focused on the retina- the eye accommodate i.e. focused for a near object5Light from a distant object is focused on the retina- the eye accommodate i.e. focused on a distant object

28Differentiate between Corpus Callosum and Corpus Luteum?

No.Corpus CallosumNo.Corpus Luteum
1It transfers information from one cerebral hemisphere to the other1It secretes Progesterone and Oestrogen
2It is the part of the human brain2It is the part of the human reproductive system
3Corpus Callosum is also known as Callosal Commissure3Corpus Luteum is also known as Corpora Lutea
4It is consist of white matter4Corpus Luteum does not have white matter
5It is composed of nerve fibre tract5It is not composed of nerve fibre tract
6Three are approximately 200-300 Axons6There is no Axons in Corpus Luteum

29Differentiate between Turgor Pressure and Wall Pressure?

No.Turgor PressureNo.Wall Pressure
1It is the pressure exerted by the contents of a turgid cell on its cell wall1It is the pressure exerted by the cell wall on its contents (Protoplasm)
2Acts on the cell wall2Generated by the cell wall
3Exerts pressure outside the cell3Exerts pressure inside the cell
4Keeps plant stems erect4Maintains the structure of cells and the plant
5Excess turgor pressure results in the rapture of the cell wall5Wall pressure maintains the structure of the cell

30Differentiate between Disinfectant and Antiseptic?

1It is a chemical liquid that destroys bacteria1It is a chemical that prevents the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
2Cause harm to living tissue2Do not harm living tissue
3Used for floor cleaning, bathrooms, etc.3Used in wounds, cuts, & skin
4Destroys microorganisms4Kill microorganisms and prevents their growth
5Chlorine, Formaldehyde, Hydrogen Peroxide
Example: Lizol
5Alcohols, such as Isopropyl Alcohol and Ethyl Alcohol
Example: Dettol

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31Differentiate between Dendrites and Axons?

1Dendrites are short and tapering processes1Axons are long, uniform, and cylindrical processes
2Several dendrites arise from Cyton2Only a single axon arises per Cyton
3They have tapering ends3Terminal branches of the axon enlarge to form a knob
4Dendrites contain Nissl’s granules and neurofibrils4Axons do not contain Nissl’s granules but contain neurofibrils
5They receive sensation and sent it to the Cyton5They carry impulses away from the Cyton

32Differentiate between Tricuspid Valve and Bicuspid Valve?

No.Tricuspid ValveNo.Bicuspid Valve
1Allows blood to flow from Right Atrium to Right Ventricle1Allows blood to flow from Left Atrium to Left Ventricle
2Deoxygenated blood flows through this valve2Oxygenated blood flows through this valve
3Right atrioventricular valve3Left atrioventricular valve
4Consist of three cusps4Consist of two cusps
5Prevents the reverse flow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium5Prevents the reverse flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium

33Differentiate between Castration and Vasectomy?

1Removal of testicles of a male animal1Surgical cutting and sealing of a part of vas deferens
2Sperms and hormones are not produced2Sperms and hormones produced
3Become asexual and lose masculinity3Sexuality remains as it is
4Irreversible process4Reversible process
5Done in animals5Done in animals and humans
Done in animals and humans

34Differentiate between Cerebrum and Spinal Cord?

No.CerebrumNo.Spinal Cord
1Outer Gray Matter that forms the cortex, contains cell bodies of Neurons1Outer White Matter contains Axons
2Inner White Matter contains Nerve Fibres2Inner Gray Matter contains cell bodies of Motor and Association Neurons
3The gray matter containing Cytons lies in the outer region (Cortex) and white matter containing axons lies in the inner region (Medullary Region)3The gray matter containing Cytons lies on the inner side and the white matter containing axons lies in the outer region
4The cerebrum controls voluntary movement, intelligence, and memory4The spinal cord is the highway for communication between the body and the brain
5The cerebrum is protected by the skull5It is protected by the vertebral column

35Differentiate Bowman’s Capsule and Malpighian Capsule?

No.Bowman’s CapsuleNo.Malpighian Capsule
1Bowman’s Capsule refers to a membranous, double-walled cup-like structure that surrounds the glomerulus of a nephron1Malpighian Capsule refers to the blood filtering component of the kidney
2The parts included in Bowman’s Capsule are Epithelial Cells and Glomerulus (Blood Capillaries)2The parts included in Malpighian Capsule are Glomerulus and Bowman’s Capsule
3Receives the filtrate of the glomerulus3Filters the blood and passes the filtrate to the renal tubule
4It is also known as Glomerular Capsule4It is also known as Renal Corpuscle
5Bowman’s capsule is a double-walled cup-shaped structure5The Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus collectively form the Malpighian capsule

36Differentiate between Natality and Mortality?

1Number of live births per 1000 individuals of a population per year1Number of deaths per 1000 individuals of a population per year
2It adds new individuals to the population2It removes individuals from the population
3It increases the size of the population3It decreases the size of the population
4It increases population density4It decreases population density
5It is low when population size is small and high when the population size is large5It is high when population size is small and low when population size is large

37Differentiate between Grana and Stroma?

1Grana refers to the stacks of thylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast1Stroma refers to a colorless jelly-like matrix of chloroplast in which the dark reaction of photosynthesis takes place
2Disk-like plates in the stroma2Jelly-like matrix of the chloroplast
3Consist of different pigments such as chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotene, & xanthophyll3Consist of enzymes required for photosynthesis, cytochrome system, DNA, and RNA of the chloroplast
4The light reaction of photosynthesis occurs here4The dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs here
5Provide a large surface for the attachment of photosynthesis pigments5Embeds enzymes required by the dark reaction of photosynthesis

38Differentiate between Acromegaly and Gigantism?

1Acromegaly occurs due to oversecretion of growth hormone usually from the pituitary, starting between the ages of 20 and 401Gigantism occurs due to oversecretion of growth hormone usually from the pituitary, starting in childhood before the fusion of the growth plates of bone
2Develops in adulthood2Develops in childhood
3Thick lips, tongue changes size and shape, protruding jaw3Prominent forehead, protruding jaw
4The unaffected onset of puberty4The affected onset of puberty, often delayed
5Gonadal development is unaffected5Gonadal development is reduced, often hypogonadal state

39Differentiate between Guttation and Transpiration?

1Secretion of water droplets from the pores of the plant1Evaporation of water from plants
2Water comes out as a liquid2Water evaporates as water vapor
3Can give out sugars, amino acids, & salts3Only pure water comes out
4Mainly occurs in herbaceous plants4Occurs in both terrestrial and herbaceous plants
5Occurs under humid conditions5Occurs under dry condition
6Never results in wilting6Can lead to wilting

40Differentiate between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus?

No.Diabetes MellitusNo.Diabetes Insipidus
1Insufficient secretion of Insulin1Deficiency of Antidiuretic Hormone
2Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by excessive levels of sugar glucose in the blood2Diabetes Insipidus is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely dilute urine
3Commonly caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin, which fails to metabolize sugars and starch3Commonly caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin, which regulates kidney function
4Urine contains glucose4Urine does not contain glucose
5Insulin from the pancreas controls glucose utilization5Vasopressin from the hypothalamus regulates the body’s water retention

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41Differentiate between Arteries and Veins?

1Thick wall and highly Muscular1Thin Wall and Muscular
2Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart except for the pulmonary artery2Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart except for pulmonary veins
3These are mostly deeply situated in the body3These are superficial and deep in location
4They have no valves4They have valves
5Red in color due to oxygenated blood5Blue in color due to deoxygenated blood

42Differentiate between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane?

No.Cell WallNo.Cell Membrane
1It is freely Permeable1It is Semi-Permeable
2Cell wall is absent in animal cell2Cell Membrane is found in all living cells
3A thick, rigid structure 4-20 μm wide3A thin, delicate structure 5-10 nm wide
4Can be observed under the light microscopic4Can be observed under electron microscopic
5The outermost layer of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and plant cells5The outermost layer of animal cells
6Functions are protective covering to the cell membrane and maintain the shape of the cell6Functions as a protective covering to the protoplasm and maintains a constant environment in the protoplasm
7Provides a fixed shape to the cell7Provides a round, flexible shape to the cell
8Non-living and metabolically inactive8Alive and metabolically active

43Differentiate between Disinfection and Sterilization?

1This technique minimizes the number of microorganisms but does not eliminate them completely1This technique is the elimination of all the microorganism
2This method does not eliminate bacterial spores2This method kills bacteria as well as vegetative spores
3It is not an absolute condition3It is an absolute condition
4The disinfection method is used for the decontamination of surfaces and air4The sterilization process is used for the decontamination of food, surgical equipment’s and instruments, and several medicines
5Disinfected objects have a lesser number of microorganism5No viable organisms present on sterilized items

44Differentiate between Erythrocytes and Leukocytes?

1Carry oxygen from lungs to all body tissues1Defend the body from germs by destroying them
2Erythrocytes are also called Red Blood Cells2Leukocytes are also called White Blood Cells
3They are produced in the red bone marrow3mostly bone marrow, also produced in lymph nodes, spleen, etc.
4Nucleus is absent4Nucleus is present
5Smaller than WBCs, 7.5 μm5Larger than RBCs, 15 μm
62 million RBCs per second6Fewer WBCs than RBCs

45Differentiate between Guttation and Bleeding in plants?

1Caused due to high hydrostatic pressure in the plant body and warm, humid conditions around it1Bleeding is caused due to some injury to the plants
2It is the loss of excess water2It is the loss of cell sap
3Loss of water occurs from hydathodes3Loss of sap occurs through the cut surface
4No damage of tissue occurs4Tissue damage occurs due to cut
5Occurs in plants like Banana, grass, tomato5Occurs in all types of plants

46Differentiate between Monohybrid and Dihybrid Cross?

No.Monohybrid CrossNo.Dihybrid Cross
1A Monohybrid cross is a genetic cross between homozygous individuals with different alleles for a single gene locus of interest1A Dihybrid Cross is a genetic cross between individuals with different alleles for two gene loci of interest
2The Phenotypic Ratio of Monohybrid Cross is 3:12The Phenotypic Ratio of Dihybrid Cross is 9:3:3:1
3One character is considered and studied3Two independent characters are considered and studied
4A single pair of genes is involved4Two pairs of genes are involved
5Important for determining the dominance relationship of the alleles5Important for assessing the independent assortment of alleles

47Differentiate between NAD and NADP?

1NAD is a coenzyme involved in the oxidation-reduction reactions in the cellular respiration inside the cell1NADP is a coenzyme involved in the oxidation-reduction reactions inside the cell
2Used in cellular respiration2Used in photosynthesis
3NADH and NAD+ is the reduced form3NADPH ad NADP+ is the reduced form
4The oxidized form is the most abundant inside the cell4The reduced form is the most abundant inside the cell
5NAD+ is mostly used as an oxidizing agent5NADPH is mostly used in catabolic reactions
6Used in glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, fatty acid synthesis, & sterol synthesis6Used in Calvin Cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, lipid synthesis, fatty acid chain elongation, & cholesterol synthesis

48Differentiate between Myopia and Hypermetropia?

1Eyeball lengthened from front to back1Eyeball shortened from front to back
2The image of a distant object is produced in the front and not on the retina2The image is produced beyond the retina as the light rays are unable to converge on the retina
3It results from an abnormally long eyeball3It results from abnormally short eyeball
4The defects can be produced by the high convexity of the lens4The defect can be produced by the low convexity of the lens
5It can be corrected by the use of spectacles having a concave lens5It can be corrected by the use of spectacles having a convex lens

49Differentiate between Cerebrum and Cerebellum?

1Cerebrum is the largest part of the forebrain1Cerebellum is the largest part of the hindbrain
2It controls voluntary functions and seat of intelligence will power, memory, etc.2Coordinates voluntary functions and controls equilibrium
3Cerebrum has a lesser number of neurons as compared to the cerebellum3Cerebellum contains over 50% of the total number of neurons in the brain
4It has a paired structure4It has an unpaired structure
5It is locked in the forebrain5It is locked in the hindbrain

50Differentiate between Genotype and Phenotype?

1Genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism1Phenotype is the morphology, properties, and behavior of an organism
2Can be determined by observing DNA by genotyping methods2Can be determined by observing outward characters
3It is the genetic constitution3Phenotypes is observable characters controlled by genes
4Completely depends on the gene sequence4Depending on the genotype and environmental factors
5Inherited by the offspring5Not inherited by the offspring
6Consists of all hereditary information that is the expressed and suppressed genes6Consist of expressed genes

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51Differentiate between Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis?

1Karyokinesis is the biological process involving the division of a cell’s nucleus during mitosis or meiosis1Cytokinesis is the biological process involving the division of a cell’s cytoplasm during mitosis or meiosis
2Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase are not present2It is divided into four stages- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
3Genetic material is equally distributed3Cytoplasm & cellular organelles are approximately equally distributed
4The initial step in cell division4The final step in cell division
5Spindle formation and movement of chromosomes occur5Formation of the cell plate or cleavage furrow occur

52Differentiate between Light Reaction and Dark Reaction?

No.Light ReactionNo.Dark Reaction
1Light reaction is the first phase of photosynthesis1Dark reaction is the second phase of photosynthesis
2Light Reaction occurs in Grana2Dark Reaction occurs in Stroma of Chloroplast
3There is the photolysis of water during light reaction3There is no photolysis of water during dark reaction
4Light reaction releases oxygen4Dark reaction utilizes CO2
5There is no fixation of CO2 during light reaction5CO2 is fixed during dark reaction
6Light reaction involves cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation6Dark reaction involves Calvin’s cycle, C-4 pathway, and CAM
7The end products of the light reaction are ATP and NADPH27The end product of dark reaction are ADP, NADP, and Glucose

53Differentiate between Allele and Trait?

1An allele refers to one of the two or more alternative forms of a gene1A trait refers to a genetically determined characteristic that belongs to a particular individual
2It is also called the genotype of an individual2It is also called the Phenotype of an individual
3Can be visualized through DNA testing3Most are visible to the naked eye
4Always occur in pairs4Occur individually
5Not influenced by environmental factors5Influenced by environmental factors
6Variations are called Genetic Variations6Variations are called Phenotypic Variations

54Differentiate between Transpiration and Evaporation?

1Transpiration is a physiological process1Evaporation is a physical process
2Transpiration occurs only in living plants2Evaporation occurs both in living and nonliving bodies
3It is loss of water from the free surface of cells3It is loss of water from the free surface of the water
4This process is influenced by both external and internal conditions4This process is influenced only by external conditions
5It is a comparatively slow process5It is faster than transpiration

55Differentiate between Cyclic Photophosphorylation and Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation?

No.Cyclic PhotophosphorylationNo.Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation
1Only PS I is involved1PS I and PS II are both involved
2Water is not required2Photolysis of water is required
3Oxygen is not evolved3Oxygen is evolved
4NADPH is not synthesized4NADPH is synthesized
5Used to produce additional ATP in order to meet cell energy demands5Products can be used for the light-independent reactions

56Differentiate between Population and Community?

1A group of interbreeding individuals of the same species which is isolated from other groups1A group of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time
2A small group in an ecosystem2Comparatively large group
3Consist of a single species3Consist of several species living together
4All the individuals are morphologically and behaviourally similar4Individuals can be categorized into groups in terms of morphology and behavior
5Individuals interbreed freely5Interbreeding is absent
6Intra-Specific competition occurs among the individuals6Inter-Specific competition occurs among the individuals
7There are no prey-predator relationships among individuals7There are prey-predator relationships among individuals

57Differentiate between Stomata and Hydathodes?

1Occur in the epidermis of leaves and young stem1Occurs at the tip or margin of leaves that grow in a moist shady place
2The stomatal aperture is guarded by two kidney-shaped guard cells2The aperture of hydathodes is surrounded by a ring of cuticularized cells
3Two guard cells are generally surrounded by subsidiary cell3Subsidiary cells are absent
4Opening and closing of the stomatal aperture is regulated by guard cells4Hydathode pores remain always open
5Stomata are involved in the transpiration and exchange of gases5Hydathodes are involved in guttation

58Differentiate between Mitosis and Meiosis?

1Mitosis occurs continuously in the body or somatic cells1Meiosis occurs in the germ cells during the process of gametogenesis
2The whole process completed in one sequence or phase after one round of DNA replication2The whole process completes in two successive divisions which occur one after the other
3Two daughter cells are produced3Four daughter cells are produced
4Diploid cells are produced4Haploid cells are produced
5The prophase is of short duration and does not include any substage5The prophase is of longer duration and it completes in six successive stages
6No pairing or synapsis takes place between the homologous chromosomes6Pairing or synapsis occurs between the homologous chromosomes
7Duplication of chromosomes takes place in the early prophase7Duplication or splitting of chromosomes takes place in the late prophase
8No chiasma formation or crossing over takes place8Chiasma formation or crossing over takes place during meiosis
9The chromosome number remains the same in the newly formed daughter cells9Chromosome number is reduced into half in the newly formed daughter cells
10The exchange of the genetic material between the homologous chromosomes does not occur10The exchange of the genetic material takes place between the chromatids of homologous chromosomes

59Differentiate between Population Density and Population Distribution?

No.Population DensityNo.Population Distribution
1A measure of the number or organisms that make up a population in a defined area1Arrangement of the population on a certain area in accordance with conditions and requirements of the society
2Describes the number of individuals in a particular population inside a unit area of land2Describes the variability of the spread of the population in a particular area
3Number of individuals in a unit area3The concentration of individuals in a particular area
4The accurate number of individuals can be counted4An approximate number of individuals can be counted
5Example: The population density of Canada is 4 people per square km in 20125Example: 86.2% of people in Canada lived in Ontario, Manitoba, Quebec, and Alberta at the beginning of 2013

60Differentiate between Blood and Plasma?

1Blood is a liquid that circulates through arteries, veins, and capillaries of animals, transporting nutrients, respiratory gases, & metabolic wastes1Plasma is a watery fluid of blood in which the blood cells are suspended
2Composed of RBCs, WBCs, & Plasma2Comprises water, glucose, amino acids, proteins, hormones, etc.
3Red color in vertebrates3Straw color
4Becomes solid and clotted after an injury4Turns into serum after clotting
5Whole blood can be donated5Donated after removing the cellular components of the whole blood
6Transfusion may lead to incompatibility risk6Transfusion has no incompatibility risk

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61Differentiate between Stomata and Guard Cells?

No.StomataNo.Guard Cells
1Stomata are the pores that facilitate gas exchange and transpiration in plants1Guard cells are the cells that surround stomata and regulate the opening and closing of stomata
2It has the ability to photosynthesize2No ability to photosynthesize
3cellular organelles and nucleus are absent3Presence of cellular organelles and nucleus
4Provides space to exchange gas and moisture4Regulate opening and closing of stomata
5They are important to take up CO2 and O2 for photosynthesis5They control water loss and efficient gas exchange

62Differentiate between Plasmolysis and Turgidity?

1The process in which plant cells lose water in a hypertonic solution1The state of plant cells being swollen due to high fluid content
2Occurs due to exosmosis2Occurs due to endosmosis
3Protoplasm shrinks3Protoplasm swells
4Water moves from the protoplasm to the surrounding solution4Water moves from the surrounding solution into the protoplasm
5Turgor pressure decreases5Turgor pressure increases
6Causes the plant to wilt6Helps the plant to stand upright

63Differentiate between Stomata of Monocot Plants and Stomata of Dicot Plants?

No.Stomata of Monocot PlantsNo.Stomata of Dicot Plants
1Stomata of monocot plants are tiny pores in the upper and lower epidermis of monocot leaves which are surrounded by a pair of dumbbell-shaped guard cells1Stomata of dicot plants are tiny pores in the lower epidermis of dicot leaves, which are surrounded by a pair of bean-shaped guard cells
2Arranged in regular arrays2Arranged in an irregular pattern
3Found in both upper and lower epidermis3Found in the lower epidermis
4It is surrounded by dumbbell-shaped guard cells4It is surrounded by a pair of bean-shaped guard cells
5The leaves of the monocots are rolled to reduce the exposed surface area to the sunlight5The distribution of stomata in the lower epidermis of dicots reduces the water loss by transpiration

64Differentiate between Platelets and Plasma?

1Platelets are small, colorless, disk-shaped cell fragments found in large numbers in the blood1Plasma is a straw-colored, liquid component of blood where blood cells are suspended
2A type of blood cells2Liquid that holds blood cells
3Platelets and leukocytes account for less than 1% of whole blood3Plasma accounts for 55% of the whole blood
4Involved in blood clotting4Suspends blood cells and other important substances
5Platelets are also known as thrombocytes5Plasma is also known as body fluid

65Differentiate between Organ of Corti and Pituitary Gland?

No.Adrenal GlandNo.Pituitary Gland
1Adrenal gland is a small gland located on top of the kidney, producing hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism of the body under stressful conditions1Pituitary gland is the major endocrine gland of the body, which is attached to the base of the brain and controls the growth, development, and functions of the rest of the endocrine glands in the body
2There are two adrenal glands in the body2There is only one pituitary gland in the body
3It is situated on top of the kidney3It is situated at the base of the brain
4Composed of the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla4Composed of the anterior pituitary gland and posterior pituitary gland
5The release of hormones is regulated by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and the sympathetic nervous system5The release of hormones is regulated by the hypothalamus

66Differentiate between Amnion and Allantois?

1Amnion is the innermost thin membrane that surrounds the embryo1Allantois is a membrane that facilitates the take-up of nitrogenous waste from the fetus and gas exchange
2Its main function is to make a hydrostatic cushion around the embryo and provide a protective environment for the developing fetus2It helps the embryo to exchange gases and takes up nitrogenous waste, especially urine from the fetus
3Eventually forms into Amniotic Sac3Eventually forms into Umbilical Cord
4Amnion is the innermost layer4Allantois lies between amnion and chorion
5It does not help to handle liquid waste5It helps to handle liquid waste

67Differentiate between Synapse and Synaptic Cleft?

No.SynapseNo.Synaptic Cleft
1Synapse refers to a site of functional contact between two neurons where an electrical impulse is transmitted from one to another neuron1Synaptic cleft refers to the space between neurons at the nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by neurotransmitters
2Junction between two neurons2Gap between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons
3Composed of a pre-synaptic membrane, synaptic cleft, and a postsynaptic membrane3A component of the synapse
4Transmit nerve impulses in the form of electrical or chemical signals4Nerve impulses are transmitted in the form of chemical signals
5Involved in the conversion of electrical signals into chemical signals and transmission of the nerve impulses into an adjacent neuron5Involved in the transmission of nerve impulses between the membranes of two neurons

68Differentiate between Gene and Allele?

1A gene is a segment of DNA that controls a specific trait1An allele is a variant of a particular gene
2A single gene determines a particular trait2Two or multiple alleles bring variations to the trait
3Found in all known organisms3Can be identified in a multi-genome organism
4Occurs as individual units4Always occur in pairs
5Encode for a single protein5Produce opposite phenotypes

69Differentiate between Placenta and Uterus?

1A flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant eutherian mammals, nourishing and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord1The organ in the reproductive system of female mammals, conceiving and gestating the offspring before birth
2Occurs in placental mammals, marsupials, and some non-mammals2Occurs in most of the mammals
3Develops during pregnancy3Occurs inside the mother from birth
4A pancake-shaped organ4A pear-shaped organ
5Weight around 500g5weight around 60g
6Responsible for the nutrient uptake, waste elimination, gas exchange, and thermoregulation via the mother’s blood supply6Responsible for conceiving and the developing of the fetus

70Differentiate between T Cells and B Cells?

No.T CellsNo.B Cells
1T cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus1B Cells originate and matures in the bone marrow
2Bear TCR Receptor2Bear BCR receptor
3Have long lifespans3Have short lifespans
4Secrete lymphokines4Secrete antibodies
580% of the blood lymphocytes are T cells520% of the blood lymphocytes are B cells
6Involved in the Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI)6Involved in humoral or Antibody-Mediated Immunity (AMI)

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71Differentiate between Bulbourethral Gland and Prostate Gland?

No.Bulbourethral GlandNo.Prostate Gland
1Bulbourethral Gland is a pea-sized muscular gland that acts as an accessory gland of the male reproductive system and adds fluid to semen1Prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that acts as an accessory gland of the male reproductive system and adds some ingredients to the semen during ejaculation
2It is located between the prostate gland and penis2It is located between the bladder and the penis
3Number of glands is one3Number of glands is two
4Bulbourethral fluid accounts for 10%4Prostate fluid accounts for 30%
5Adds fluids to semen during the process of ejaculation5Secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm

72Differentiate between Telophase and Cytokinesis?

1The final step of nuclear division that follows anaphase in which two daughter nuclei are formed through the formation of a nuclear membrane1The cytoplasmic division of the cell either at the end of the mitosis or meiosis, separating two daughter cells
2The final step of Karyokinesis2The final step of cell division
3Two daughter nuclear membranes are formed forming chromatin3A cleavage furrow forms in animal cells and a cell plate forms in plant cells
4Responsible for the formation of two daughter nuclei4Responsible for dividing the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two, surrounding the two daughter nuclei
5Follows anaphase5Completed after telophase

73Differentiate between Seminiferous Tubules and Leydig Cells?

No.Seminiferous TubulesNo.Leydig Cells
1Seminiferous tubules are a network of tubes that work as sites for sperm production, maturation, and transportation1Leydig cells are the cells that synthesize and secrete male sex hormone
2Locate inside the testis2Found in the interstitial space of the testis
3Network of tubes3Polyhedral shaped cells
4Tubes are highly coiled4Cells are present in the interstitial spaces
5Sperms are produced in them5They produce and secrete the male sex hormone testosterone

74Differentiate between Mitral Valve and Aortic Valve?

No.Mitral ValveNo.Aortic Valve
1It supplies blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle1Supplies blood from the left ventricle to the aorta
2Valve of the heart located between the left atrium and the left ventricle2Valve of the heart located between the left ventricle and the aorta
3One of the two types of atrioventricular valves3One of the two types of semilunar valves
4Mitral Valve has two flaps4Aortic Valves has three flaps
5Closes when the aortic valve opens5Closes when the mitral valve opens
6Mitral valve prolapse is the main clinical condition that can occur6Aortic stenosis is the main clinical condition that can occur

75Differentiate between Stomata and Lenticels?

1Minute pores in the epidermis of the leaf or stem of the plant forming slits of variable width which allows the movement of gases in and out of the intercellular spaces1The many raised pores in the stem of a woody plant allowing gas exchange between the atmosphere and the internal tissues
2Mainly occur in the lower epidermis of the leaf2Occur in the peridermis of the woody trunk or the stem
3Occur during the primary growth3Occur during the secondary growth
4Open based on the requirements of the plant4Remain open
5Guard cells determine the size5Do not contain guard cells
6Transpire a large amount of water vapor6Transpire a small amount of water vapor

76Differentiate between Hormones and Enzymes?

1Hormones travel through the blood1These travel through the ducts
2Reaction is slow2More in quantity
3Less in quantity3Reaction is fast
4Involved in metabolic activities4Involved in digestion
5Example: Insulin5Example: Lipase

77Differentiate between Cell Division and Nuclear Division?

No.Cell DivisionNo.Nuclear Division
1Cell Division is the process of splitting a parent cell into two or more daughter cell1Nuclear Division is the process of obtaining two or more daughter nuclei by splitting a parent nucleus
2Major events are Nuclear Division and Cytokinesis2Major events are DNA replication, chromosome condensation, etc.
3Cell Division makes new cells and gametes3Divides genetic material in the nucleus and aids in the maintenance of the genetic composition of an organism
4No spindle formation4Spindle formation occurs
5Different in plants and animals5Similar in plants and animals
6Daughter cells are always similar6Daughter Nuclei may be similar (Mitosis) or dissimilar (Meiosis)

78Differentiate between Chorion and Placenta?

1The outermost membrane surrounding an embryo of a reptile, bird, or mammal1A temporary organ that connects the developing fetus via the umbilical cord to the uterine wall in placental mammals
2Mainly occurs in mammals, reptiles, and birds2Mainly occurs in placental mammals
3One of the four fetal membranes3The two parts of the placenta are the maternal placenta and the fetal placenta
4Protects the embryo4Facilitates nutrient uptake, gas exchange, waste elimination, & thermo-regulation in the fetus
5A part of the embryo5A combination of the fetus and the tissues of the mother

79Differentiate between Maternal Twins and Paternal Twins?

No.Maternal TwinsNo.Paternal Twins
1Maternal twins refer to the twins developed from a single fertilized egg and are alike in all genetic characteristics including appearance and sex1Parental twins refer to the twins developed from separate fertilized eggs and are not identical in appearance and sex
2They are also known as Monozygotic Twins or Identical twins2They are also known as Fraternal Twins or Dizygotic Twins
3Formed by the splitting of a fertilized egg3Formed by the fertilization of mother’s eggs by several sperms of the father
4Share the same placenta4Have separate placenta
5Twins are alike5Twins are like siblings
6Have the same blood type6May or may not have the same blood type

80Differentiate between Filtration and Reabsorption?

1Filtration is the movement of water and solutes across a cell membrane due to the hydrostatic pressure of the cardiovascular system1Reabsorption is the movement of water and solutes back into the plasma from renal tubules
2Passive process2Active process
3Physical process3Selective process
4Occurs at the Bowman’s Capsule of the nephron4Occurs at PCT, loop of Henle, DCT and collecting duct of the nephron
5Produces a diluted filtrate5Concentrates the filtrate
6Governed by the hydrostatic pressure6Governed by Osmotic pressure and Oncotic pressure

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81Differentiate between Amniotic Fluid and Urine?

No.Amniotic FluidNo.Urine
1It is the fluid that surrounds the fetus within the amnion1The watery and typically yellowish fluid is one of the chief means of eliminating excess water and salt
2Amniotic fluid has an odorless smell2has a strong fish-like odor due to bacterial growth after urination
3Contains nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, and lipids, hormones, immune system cells, and the urine of the baby3Contains mainly water, ignorant salts, proteins, hormones, and a wide range of metabolites
4Normal level about one quart by 36 weeks after pregnancy4The normal range of urine is 0.6 to 2.6 L per person
5A true amniotic fluid leak cannot be controlled5The flow can be controlled by squeezing muscles

82Differentiate between Upper Epidermis and Lower Epidermis?

No.Upper EpidermisNo.Lower Epidermis
1Upper epidermis refers to a single layer of cells on the upper surface of the leaf which aids the water conservation1Lower epidermis refers to a single layer of cells on the lower surface of the leaf which contains stomata and guard cells
2Contains few stomata2Contains a large number of stomata
3Contains less number of chloroplasts since it contains fewer number of guard cells3Contains more chloroplasts than the upper epidermis
4Possesses a cuticle layer to eliminate the excess sunlight4Possesses a thin cuticle layer
5Mainly involved in water conservation5Mainly involved in the gas exchange

83Differentiate between Ascending Loop of Henle and Descending Loop of Henle?

No.Ascending Loop of HenleNo.Descending Loop of Henle
1Ascending Loop of Henle is located just after the sharp bend of the loop, It is the second segment of the Loop of Henle1Descending Loop of Henle is the first segment of the Loop of Henle which is located just before the sharp bend of the loop
2It is located between the Descending Loop of Henle and Distal Convoluted Tubule2It is located between the Proximal Convoluted Tubule and Ascending Loop of Henle
3It receives fluid from Descending Loop of Henle3It receives fluid from Proximal Convoluted Tubule
4Ascending limb is much thicker than Descending limb4Descending limb is thinner than Ascending limb
5Just after the sharp bend of the loop5Just before the sharp bend of the loop

84Differentiate Guard Cells and Epidermal Cells?

No.Guard CellsNo.Epidermal Cells
1A pair of guard cells form a stoma, which is involved in the gas exchange of plants1Epidermal cells provide protection to the plant from the external environment
2Bean-shaped in monocots and dumbbell-shaped in dicots2Rectangular or tubular-shaped
3Consist of chloroplast3Does not consist of chloroplast
4Inner cell wall is thicker than the outer cell wall4Outer cell wall is thicker than the inner cell wall
5No Cutin is found5Cutin is found in the cell wall

85Differentiate between Proximal Convoluted Tubule and Distal Convoluted Tubule?

No.Proximal Convoluted TubuleNo.Distal Convoluted Tubule
1Proximal Convoluted Tubule is the first part of renal tubule which lies between the Bowman’s capsule and Henle’s loop1Distal Convoluted Tubule is the third part of renal tubule which lies between Henle’s loop and the collecting tubule
2Proximal Convoluted Tubule is situated in the cortex of the kidney2Distal Convoluted Tubule is situated in the cortex of the kidney but extends into the medulla
3It pumps out glucose, amino acids and potassium, calcium, and chloride ions3It is concerned with the secretion of hydrogen ions and receiving unwanted waste substances from the blood back into the nephron
4Proximal Convoluted Tubule is provided with a brush border formed of microvilli4Distal Convoluted Tubule is not provided with a brush border
5Active and passive transports take place in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule and it thus forms the first region of selective reabsorption5Distal Convoluted Tubule forms the juxtaglomerular apparatus in association with the glomerulus of the same nephron. It forms the region of tubular secretion

86Differentiate between Centrosome and Centromere?

1Cell organelle, regulating the cell cycle and organizing the microtubules 1Section of non-coding DNA, responsible for the movement of replicated chromosomes to the daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis
2Main center for organization of microtubules and regulator of the cycle2The fibers of the spindle attach to the centromere to pull the sister chromatids to the poles during cell division
3It consists of two centrioles and pericentriolar material3Consist of non-coding DNA
4Each cell has one centrosome4The number of centromeres in the cell equals the number of chromosomes
5Located at two poles of the cell5Located on the chromosomes

87Differentiate between Neurilemma and Myelin Sheath?

No.NeurilemmaNo.Myelin Sheath
1Neurilemma is the plasma membrane of Schwann cells that surrounds the myelinated nerve fibers1Myelin sheath is the insulating covering of the nerve fibers that increases the speed of conduction of nerve impulses
2Only found in the peripheral nervous system2Found in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
3Composed of the plasma membrane of Schwann cells3Composed of proteins and lipids such as glycolipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol
4Formed by Schwann cells4Secreted by Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes
5Involved in protecting and regenerating nerve fibers5Increases the speed of the conduction of the nerve impulses through the nerve fiber

88Differentiate between Xylem and Phloem?

1Xylem carries water from roots to leaves1Phloem carries food from leaves to growing parts and storage organs
2Cell wall is thick2Cell wall is thin
3Cell wall is made up of lignin3Cell wall is made up of cellulose
4Made up of dead cells4Made up of living cells
5Cells are impermeable to water 5Cells are permeable to food
6Found in the center of the vascular bundle6Found in the outside of the vascular bundle
7Passive transportation of water and minerals occur7Active transportation of sugars and other metabolites occur

89Differentiate between Transpiration and Translocation?

1Transpiration refers to the movement of water vapor through the stomata of plants1Translocation refers to the movement of nutrients from leaves to the other tissues in the plant
2Water vapor is transported2Sucrose is transported
3Always occur against the gravity3Can occur in any direction
4Allows the inward movement of water in the xylem4Carried out by the phloem
5Occurs at day time5Occurs at night

90Differentiate between Vas Deferens and Fallopian Tube?

No.Vas DeferensNo.Fallopian Tube
1Vas Deferens is a muscular tube that transports sperms from the epididymis to the penis1Fallopian tube is a muscular tube that facilitates the movements of oocytes and allows fertilization
2Vas Deferens belongs to the Male reproductive system2Fallopian tube belongs to the Female reproductive system
3Transports sperms from the epididymis to the penis and stores sperms until the time of ejaculation3Allow the movement of oocytes from the ovary and facilitate fertilization
4Carries sperm4Carries ovum
5Fertilization does not take place5Fertilization takes place

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91Differentiate between Self-Pollination and Cross-Pollination?

1Self-Pollination occurs within a flower or between two flowers of the same plant1Cross-Pollination occurs between two flowers born on different plants of the same species
2Flowers do not depend on other agencies for pollination2Agents such as insects, water, and wind are required for pollination
3Pollen grains are produced in small numbers3Pollen grains are produced in large numbers
4No wastage of pollen grains occurs and thus, economical4Wastage of pollen grains occurs and hence, not economical
5The offsprings produced are of the same genetic makeup, so the purity of the race is maintained5The offspring produced may show variations and differ in the genetic makeup
6Flowers are not attractive nor do they produce nectar6Flowers attract insects by various means like-colored petals, scent, and nectar

92Differentiate between External Fertilization and Internal Fertilization?

No.External FertilizationNo.Internal Fertilization
1The fusion of male gamete (sperm) and female Gamete (ovum) occurs outside the body1The fusion of gametes occurs inside the body
2Both individuals discharge their gametes outside the body2Only the male discharge sperms into the female genital tract
3Development occurs outside the body3Development occurs inside the body
4Survival of embryo is high4Survival is low
5Example: Frog5Example: Human, Birds, etc

93Differentiate between Asexual Reproduction and Sexual Reproduction?

No.Asexual ReproductionNo.Sexual Reproduction
1It does not involve formation and fusion of gametes1It involves formation and fusion of gametes
2Reproduction units are Somatic Cells of the parent2Reproductive units are Germ Cells of the parent
3It is uniparental3It is generally biparental
4It involves only mitotic divisions4It involves meiosis during gamete formation
5Fast and simple process5Slow, elaborate, and complex process
6Offsprings are genetically similar to parents6Offsprings are genetically different from parents

94Differentiate between Microsporogenesis and Megasporogenesis?

1The process of formation and differentiation of pollen grains from microspore mother cells by meiosis is known as Microsporogenesis1The process of formation and differentiation of megaspores from megaspore mother cells by meiosis is known as Megasporogenesis
2All the four pollen grains that are formed from microspore mother cells are fictional2Only one out of the four megaspores is functional
3Pollen grains are produced in the anther which is a broader knob like fertile part of the stamen3Ovules (which are the future seeds) are formed in the ovary
4It occurs inside the pollen sac of the anther4It occurs in the ovule of the ovary
5Many microspore mother cells are distinguished in a microsporangium5Only a single megaspore mother cell is distinguished in a megasporangium

95Differentiate between Integument and Testa?

1It is the covering of the ovule1It is the outer covering of the seed
2Its cells are living2Its cell are dead
3It is thin, one or two-layered3It is quite thick and one layered
4Sclereids are absent4cells are rich in Sclereids
5It is a pre-fertilized structure5It is a post-fertilized structure
6It arises from the chalazal end of the ovule6It is derived from the outer integument of the ovule after fertilization

96Differentiate between Coleoptile and Coleorhiza?

1The epicotyl bearing shoot apex and leaf primordia are enclosed in a foliar structure called Coleoptile1The radial and root cap are enclosed in a sheath called Coleorhiza
2It protects the plumule during emergence from soil2It does not protect the radicle during its passage into the soil
3Coleoptile has a terminal pore from the emergence of the first leaf3Coleorhiza is a solid structure
4It grows much beyond the grain4After emergence from grain, it stops growing
5Coleoptile after emergence from the soil during germination becomes green and does photosynthesis5Coleorhiza does not come out of the soil and remains non-green

97Differentiate between Homologous Organs and Analogous Organs?

No.Homologous OrgansNo.Analogous Organs
1Homologous Organs are those organs that are different in appearance and perform different functions but have a similar basic structure and developmental origin1Analogous Organs are those organs that are different in their basic structure and developmental origin but appear similar and perform similar functions
2Presence of homologous organs confirms common ancestry and evolutionary relationship2Presence of analogous organs shows that all the similarities are not necessary because of common ancestry
3Share a similar developmental pattern3Developmental patterns are dissimilar to each other
4Developed by divergent evolution4Developed by convergent evolution
5Example: Forelimbs of vertebrates5Example: Wings of an insect and a bird

98Differentiate between Respiration and Photosynthesis?

1Occurs in all living organism1Occurs in plants and other green plant-like species only (Algae)
2Carbon dioxide is released as an end product2Oxygen is released as an end product
3It is a catabolic process3It is an anabolic process
4Energy is released4Energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules
5O2 is used and CO2 & H2O are given off5CO2 & H2O are used whereas O2 is given off
6Results in loss of dry mass6Results in the gain of dry mass

99Differentiate between Blood and Lymph?

1It is red in color due to the presence of Haemoglobin in red cells1It is colorless as Haemoglobin is absent
2It consists of Plasma, RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets2It consists of Plasma and fewer number of WBCs
3It transports materials from one organ to another organ and therefore it acts as a “Vehicle”3It transports materials from tissue cells to the blood and vice versa, therefore it acts as a “Middle Man”
4It flows through blood capillaries4It flows through Lymphatic Capillaries
5Bidirectional flow5Unidirectional flow
6Leukocytes count relatively less6High Leukocytes count
7Flow is rapid7Flow is slow
8Platelets are present8Platelets are absent
9Oxygen is more9Oxygen is relatively less
10Fibrinogen is found in a large amount10Fibrinogen is found in less amount

100Differentiate between Mastication and Rumination?

1Mastication is the breaking of solid food into smaller pieces by the chewing and grinding action of the teeth1It is the storing of quickly swallowed food in a pouch near to the stomach and bringing the bolus back to the mouth to then chew and grind properly
2There is no storage pouch essential2The animal store the swallowed food in a pouch near the stomach
3There is a single way passage of the masticated food to the stomach3The ruminants can bring and store food again in the pouch till it is properly chewed
4Mastication occurs only one time in the oral cavity4Rumination allows food to undergo mastication more than once
5Seen in most of the animals, including birds and humans5Observed in certain ruminants such as cow, buffalo, etc

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101Differentiate between Autotrophic Nutrition and Heterotrophic Nutrition?

No.Autotrophic NutritionNo.Heterotrophic Nutrition
1Food is prepared from CO2, Water, and Sunlight1Food is obtained from other organisms
2Chlorophyll is required2Chlorophyll is not required
3All green plants and some bacteria have this type of nutrition3All animals and fungi have this type of nutrition
4Food is generally in the daytime4Food can be obtained at all time
5Process of digestion is absent5Process of digestion is required

102Differentiate between Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration?

No.Aerobic RespirationNo.Anaerobic Respiration
1Occurs in the presence of oxygen1Occurs in the absence of oxygen
2Glucose is completely oxidized2Glucose is broken down incompletely
3It produces a large amount of energy3Very little energy is produced
4End products are CO2 and water4End products are either ethyl alcohol and CO2 or lactic acid
5Occurs in most of the Plants and Animals5Occurs in a few organisms like yeast, some bacteria, & some parasitic worms

103Differentiate between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis?

1It is the process of formation of sperms from immature germ cells1It is a process of transformation of a circular spermatid to a motile spermatozoa
2The number of cells increases as each Spermatogonium produces four Spermatids2No change in the number of cells as only one Spermatid develops into a Spermatozoa
3Growth and divisions occur3Growth and divisions do not occur
4A spermatogonium forms four spermatozoa4A spermatid forms a single spermatozoon
5Meiotic divisions are equal5Meiotic divisions are unequal

104Differentiate between Pectoral Girdle and Pelvic Girdle?

No.Pectoral GirdleNo.Pelvic Girdle
1It is located in the shoulder region1It is located in the hip region
2There are two separate Pectoral Girdles, each consisting of two bones: one clavicle and one scapula2There is one Pelvic Girdle formed by two innominate bones, each innominate bone consists of three bones: ileum, ischium, and pubis
3Each Pectoral Girdle has a glenoid cavity into which the head of the humerus is articulated3Each innominate bone has a deep depression called the acetabulum to which the head of the femur is articulated
4It has no articulation with the vertebral column4It has articulation with the vertebral column
5Bones are light because they are not subjected to too much stress5Bones are thick because they are subjected to too much stress

105Differentiate between Locomotion and Movement?

1Moving away from the original position of an organism is locomotion1Movement can happen with or without moving away from an organisms original position
2It is always voluntary2It can either be voluntary or involuntary
3Locomotion takes place at the organism level3Movement can happen with or without moving away from an organism’s original position
4Locomotion does not necessarily require energy4Movement requires energy
5It occurs at the organism level5It occurs at the biological level

106Differentiate between Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis?

1It is the formation of male and female gametes1It is the formation of an embryo from the zygote
2The formation of male and female gametes2The formation and the development of an embryo from the zygote
3Gametes are the Haploid Cells3Embryo is Diploid Cell
4Both Mitotic and Meiotic cell division takes place4Only mitotic division occurs
5It leads to fertilization5It leads to organogenesis

107Differentiate between Imbibition and Diffusion?

1It involves absorption of solvent or water by a solid substance (adsorption occurs)1It is the movement of all types of substances from the area of their higher free energy to the area of their lower free energy
2It produces heat2It does not produce heat
3It can develop a very high pressure called imbibition pressure3It cannot develop a high pressure
4It occurs in solids4It can occur in any medium
5Dry plant material or seeds act as adsorbents to imbibe water and swell5The diffusing molecules may be solids, liquids, or gases

108Differentiate between Homozygous and Heterozygous?

1They have similar alleles (TT or tt) for a trait1Have dissimilar alleles (Tt) for a trait
2Contains either Dominant (TT) or Recessive (tt) alleles but not both types (Tt)2Contains both Dominant and Recessive alleles (Tt)
3They are true-breeding for a specific trait and produce progeny having the same genotypes and phenotypes on selfing3They are not true-breeding and produce offspring having three genotypes and mostly two or sometimes three phenotypes
4Only one type of gametes are formed wither ‘T’ or ‘t’ type only not both4Produce two types of gametes containing ‘T’ as well as ‘t’
5Mendel’s term: True-Breeding5Mendel’s term: Hybrid
6Homozygous-Dominant and Homozygous-Recessive are two types6Complete Dominance, Incomplete Dominance, & Codominance are the three types

109Differentiate between Dominance and Recessive?

1When a factor (allele) expresses itself in the presence or absence of its Recessive factor called Dominance1It can only express itself in the absence of its dominant factor or allele
2It forms a complete functional enzyme that perfectly expresses it2It forms an incomplete defective enzyme that fails to express itself when present with its Dominant allele i.e., in heterozygous condition
3The Dominant character cannot be masked by the Recessive Characters3Recessive Characters are masked by the Dominant Characters
4More prone to produce diseases4Less prone to produce diseases
5Example: Tall Plant, Round Seed, Violet Flower, etc.5Example: Dwarf Plant, Wrinkled Seed, White Flower, etc.

110Differentiate between Diploblastic and Triploblastic?

1Diploblastic animals produce two primary germ layers, Endoderm, and Ectoderm during Gastrulation1Triploblastic animals produce three primary germ layers, Endoderm, Ectoderm, & Mesoderm
2Diploblastic animals are radially symmetric2Triploblastic animals are bilaterally symmetric
3Do not have body cavities3Develop a body cavity, a coelom
4Do not have organs4Have true organs
5Endoderm forms true tissue and the gut5Endoderm forms the lungs, stomach, colon, etc.
6Example: Jellyfish, Corals, and Sea Anemones6Example: Worms, Arthropods, and Molluscs

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111Differentiate between Intracellular Digestion and Extracellular Digestion?

No.Intracellular DigestionNo.Extracellular Digestion
1The digestion of food occurs within the cell1The digestion occurs in the cavity of the alimentary canal
2Digestive products are diffused into the cytoplasm2Digestive products diffuse across the intestinal wall into various parts of the body
3It is a less efficient method3It is a more efficient method of digestion
4It occurs in unicellular organisms4It occurs in multicellular organisms
5Digestive enzymes are secreted by the surrounding cytoplasm into the food vacuole5Digestive enzymes are secreted by special cells into the cavity of the alimentary canal

112Differentiate between Plant Cell and Animal Cell?

No.Plant CellNo.Animal Cell
1Cell wall is present outside the plasma membrane1Cell wall is absent, the outermost covering is the plasma membrane
2Plastids are present2Plastids are absent
3Centriole is absent3Centriole is present
4Mitochondria is less in number4Mitochondria is more in number
5Golgi bodies are many and scattered5Golgi body is single and located near the nucleus
6Single and large central vacuole6Many and small vacuoles
7Nucleus is generally excentric7Nucleus is generally centric

113Differentiate between Codons and Anticodons?

1A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides, which codes for a particular amino acid1An anticodon is a sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to the codon of a particular amino acid
2It is found on mRNA and decides the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide2It is found on tRNA and recognizes the codon on mRNA during translation
3One mRNA contains several codons3One tRNA contains one anticodon
4Complementary to a nucleotide triplet from a certain gene in the DNA4Complementary to the codon
5The link between the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of the protein5Transfers the genetic information from the nucleus where the DNA is located to the ribosomes where the protein synthesis is performed

114Differentiate between Skeletal Muscle and Cardiac Muscle?

No.Skeletal MuscleNo.Cardiac Muscle
1They are present in the limbs, body walls, tongue, pharynx, and beginning of the esophagus1They are present in the wall of the heart, pulmonary veins, and superior vena cava
2Fibres are unbranched2Fibres are branched
3Light and dark bands are present3Faint light and dark bands are present
4Nerve supply from the central nervous system4Nerve supply from the brain and autonomic nervous system
5Very rapid contraction5Rapid contraction
6No oblique bridges and intercalated discs6Oblique bridges and intercalated discs present

115Differentiate between Wind Pollinated and Insect Pollinated?

No.Wind PollinatedNo.Insect Pollinated
1They are small1They are either large or grouped to form large clusters
2Usually inconspicuous due to dull colors2The presence of bright color in the corolla, calyx, or bracts to attract insects
3They are odorless and devoid of nectar3Strongly odored and usually possess nectar or edible pollen
4Pollens are produced in large numbers4Fewer pollen grains are produced
5Example: Urtica, Maize, Parthenium5Example: Rose, Snapdragon, Calotropis

116Differentiate between Male Gametophyte and Female Gametophyte?

No.Male GametophyteNo.Female Gametophyte
1It is derived from a microspore, which is produced inside the pollen chamber of anther1It is derived from a megaspore, which is formed inside the nucellus of an ovule
2The microspores are shed at maturity and transferred from anthers to stigma by a process called pollination2The megaspores do not shed from the ovule. They develop to form embryo sac within the ovule
3The mature male gametophyte is 3-Celled3The mature female gametophyte is 7-Celled
4Originates inside the microsporangium4Originates inside the megasporangium
5Has two phases of growth5Has a single phase of growth

117Differentiate between Pollen Grain and Ovule?

No.Pollen GrainNo.Ovule
1Pollen Grain is the male reproductive structure1Ovule is the female reproductive structure
2Identified as the microgametophyte2Identified as the megagametophyte
3Found in the anther of stamens3Found inside the ovary of the pistil of a flower
4It consists of a generative cell along with two nuclei and a tube cell4It consists of integuments, nucellus, and the embryo sac
5Produces sperm cells5Produces egg cells
6Destroyed after fertilization6Develops into the seed after feralization

118Differentiate between Pollination and Fertilization?

1Pollination is the deposition of pollen grains on the stigma of the flower*1Fertilization is the fusion of haploid male & female gametes, forming the diploid zygote
2Pollination is a physical process2Fertilization is a cellular, genetic, and biochemical process
3Self-pollination and cross-pollination are two variations3Double fertilization can be observed in flowering plants
4Occurs in the early stages of sexual reproduction of plant4Preceded by pollination
5An external mechanism5An internal mechanism
6Achieved by external pollination agents like water, wind, insects, etc.6Does not require external agents

119Differentiate between Nervous Control and Hormonal Control?

No.Nervous ControlNo.Hormonal Control
1Consists of nerve impulses conducted by neurons from one organ to another organ1Consists of the endocrine system which secrets chemical messenger’s hormones secreted directly in the blood
2Nervous impulses produce rapid short-lasting responses2Hormones produce longer-lasting responses
3Nervous impulses are not specific in their action3The action of hormones is highly specific
4Cannot affect growth4Can affect growth
5Affects only the particular muscles or the gland5Affects any organ (widespread in the body)

120Differentiate between Dicot Embryo (Pea) and Monocot Embryo (Grass)?

No.Dicot Embryo
No.Monocot Embryo
1The basal cell forms a 6-10 celled suspension1Basal cell produces a single-celled suspension
2Terminal cell produces embryo, except the radicle2Forms the whole embryo
3It possesses two cotyledons3It possesses one cotyledon
4First division of the terminal cell is longitudinal4The first division is transverse
5Plumule is terminal and is present between the elongated cotyledons5Plumule is laterally present to exercise growth of single cotyledon

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121Differentiate between Menarche and Menopause?

1It is the first menstrual period or the start of menstruation in human females1It is the end of the menstrual period or menstruation in human females
2It occurs at around 11-1 years of age2It occurs at around 45-50 years of age
3It marks the beginning of the reproductive phase of a female3It makes the end of the reproductive phase of a female
4There is an elevated level of oestrogen4There is a decline in the level of oestrogen
5Symptoms: Irritability, moodiness, acne, irregularity in periods5Symptoms: Bloating, lack of sleep, weight gain, hair loss, skin dryness
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